Friday, July 31, 2015

The Indians' New World: The Catawba Experience (& Lawson's New Voyage)

    “A village and its surrounding territory were important elements of personal and collective identity, physical links in a chain binding a group to its past and making a locality sacred. Colonists, convinced that Indians were by nature "a shifting, wandring People," were oblivious to this, but Lawson offered a glimpse of the reasons for native attachment to a particular locale. "In our way," he wrote on leaving an Eno-Shakori town in 170I, "there stood a great Stone about the Size of a large Oven, and hollow; this the Indians took great Notice of, putting some Tobacco into the Concavity, and spitting after it. I ask'd them the Reason of their so doing, but they made me no Answer." (22) Natives throughout the interior honored similar places-graves of ancestors, monuments of stones commemorating important events-that could not be left behind without some cost (23)…”

Lawson, New Voyage, ed. Lefler, 57. { }
23 (:

Edward Bland, "The Discovery of New Brittaine, i650," in Alexander S. Salley, ed., Narratives of Early Carolina, I650-1708 (New York, i9iI), I3-I4; William P. Cumming, ed., The Discoveries of John Lederer ... (Charlottesville, Va., I958), I2, I7, I9-20; John Banister, "Of the Natives," in Joseph Ewan and Nesta Ewan, eds.,John Banister and His Natural History of Virginia, I678-I692 (Urbana, Ill., I970), 377; William J. Hinke, trans. and ed., "Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michel from Berne, Switzerland, to Virginia, October 2, I70i-December i, I702," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, XXIV (i9i6), 29; Lawson, New Voyage, ed. Lefler, so; David I. Bushnell, Jr., "'The Indian Grave'-a Monacan Site in Albemarle County, Virginia," WMQ, ist Ser., XXIII (I9I4), io6- I I2. 2
Quotes from Lawson:
(31: “At Noon we halted, getting our Dinner upon a Marble-Stone, that rose it self half a Foot above the Surface of the Earth, and might contain the Compass of a Quarter of an Acre of Land, being very even, there growing upon it in some Places a small red Berry, like a Salmon-Spawn, there boiling out of the main Rock curious Springs of as delicious Water, as ever I drank in any Parts I ever travell'd in. These Parts likewise affords good free Stone, fit for Building…”)
(44: The Marble here is of different Colours, some or other of the Rocks representing most Mixtures, but chiefly the white having black and blue Veins in it, and some that are red. This day, we met with seven heaps of Stones, being the Monuments of seven Indians, that were slain in that place by the S'nnagers, or Troquois. Our Indian Guide added a Stone to each heap…)
(57: Stone quote above)
(126-7:   The Allegator is the same, as the Crocodile, and differs only in Name. They frequent the sides of Rivers, in the Banks of which they make their Dwellings a great way under Ground; the Hole or Mouth of their Dens lying commonly two Foot under Water, after which it rises till it be considerably above the Surface thereof. Here it is, that this amphibious Monster dwells all the Winter, sleeping away his time till the Spring appears, when he comes from his Cave, and daily swims up and down the Streams. He always breeds in some fresh Stream, of clear Fountain of Water, yet seeks his Prey in the broad Salt Waters, that are brackish, not on the Sea-side, where I never met with any. He never devours Men in Carolina, but uses all ways to avoid them, yet he kills Swine and Dogs, the former as they come to seed in the Marshes, the others as they swim over the Creeks and Waters. They are very mischievous to the Wares made for taking Fish, into which they come to prey on the Fish that are caughtin the Ware, from whence they cannot readily extricate themselves, and so break the Ware in Pieces, being a very strong Creature…”)
(209:  They are not only good Hunters of the wild Beasts and Game of the Forest, but very expert in taking the Fish of the Rivers and Waters near which they inhabit, and are acquainted withal. Thus they that live a great way up the Rivers practise Striking Sturgeon and Rock-fish, or Bass, when they come up the Rivers to spawn; besides the vast Shoals of Sturgeon which they kill and take with Snares, as we do Pike in Europe. The Herrings in March and April run a great way up the Rivers and fresh Streams to spawn, where the Savages make great Wares, with Hedges that hinder their Passage only in the Middle, where an artificial Pound is made to take them in; so that they cannot return. This Method is in use all over the fresh Streams, to catch Trout and the other Species of Fish which those Parts afford…)
(213: “Then the Doctor proceeded to tell a long Tale of a great Rattle-Snake, which, a great while ago, liv'd by a Creek in that River (which was Neus) and that it kill'd abundance of Indians; but at last, a bald Eagle kill'd it, and they were rid of a Serpent, that us'd to devour whole Canoes full of Indians, at a time.)

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