Cover of DuBois’ book and Plate 19 (referred to on pages 158, 159, as PI. 4) of Kroeber’s “A mission record of the California Indians.”
Fig. 2.—A painted rock, once a woman, on which two sacred stones are poised.
ANCESTRAL LANDMARKS AND DESCENT OF SONGS.
“After the water dried, the people went on to Kalaupa,290 and killed a bear there, and held a council whether they should go any further. They decided to go on, and went to Elsinore where the lake is. From there they scattered, north, south, east, and west, in parties as they are now. The people of La Jolla stayed in one place; those of Rincon in another, and so on. When they scattered in this way they composed the songs about their travels and the different places where they stopped. These are the songs of Munival.
When the people scattered from Ekvo Temeko, Temecula, they were very powerful. When they got to a place they would sing a song to make water come there, and would call that place theirs; or they would scoop out a hollow in a rock with their hands to have that for their mark as a claim upon the land. The different parties of people had their own marks. For instance, Albafias's ancestors had theirs, and Lueario's people had theirs, and their own songs of Munival to tell how they traveled from Temecula, of the spots where they stopped and about the different places they claimed.
Wasimul, one of the Temecula people, who is now a small flat rock at Rincon in the field below the store, was one of Pio Amago's ancestors, and he has a song about it. It mentions Temecula and mentions Wasimul. Lucario cannot sing this song because it does not belong to his family.
Piyevla,291 the man who scooped out a rock on the hill near Albafias 's house at La Jolla, was one of Lucario's ancestors; and the turtle rock in the same locality was brought from Temecula by one of Lucario's ancestors and left there. The oak tree growing on this rocky knoll was called long ago Pecheya, sacred feather headdress. (Pl . 4, fig. 1.) The place itself is called Popikvo. The sliding place on a large rock in Trujillo's field adjoining Popikvo, was made smooth by Lucario's ancestors sliding on it.
One of the most striking rocks in this locality of ancient monuments is the painted rock, Exwanyawish which was one of the Temecula people, a woman, who turned into this form. Indians suffering bodily pain rub against the rock to obtain relief. It is not known when the painting on the hollowed side was done, nor when the sacred stones, wiala, were poised on top. The oldest man remembers that they were always there, though the touch of a hand might overturn them. Pl . 4, fig. 2.)
In those days they used to sing songs to kill each other by witchcraft, and Lucario knows these songs. He has one of them which mentions the turtle rock, and tells how it was left there.2" The large flat rock is divided by cracks which resemble the marks on the turtle's back.
Lucario is the last of his line, party, or clan, and everything sacred will be lost when he is gone, as the succession in these things ends with him. He is dispossessed from his ancient home place, which was allotted to another.” (Kroeber, 158-9)
“Record 394. Toloache ceremony march song. By Lucario Cuevish. Tamyush noya kwoya, etc., Tamyush marches by twisting.116 The power of motion a (DuBois, )ttributed to tamyush, the sacred v stone bowl, and this song, have been mentioned in the account of the toloache ceremony.”
THE WALKING TAMYUSH
“The Tamyush, sacred stone bowls, were never made. They were among the first people, born of the Earth-mother. If the chief in whose charge they are, does not take good care of them they go away.
They have been seen going along the road, and one can follow their track in the dust. It is like a rattlesnake track, but broader.
At Pichanga one lately came there. A raven was seen flying along above the road, and every now and then he swooped down as if following some object. A man went to see what was there, and found the Tamyush. It had been coming along the road to Pichanga. He took it to his home and they had a big ceremony over it. The man is dead now.” (DuBois, 156)
“This is the outcropping often referred to as "Turtle Rock". It is held sacred by the Gabrieleño Indians, and is located in the northern part of the Turtle Rock neighborhood, near Concordia University, Irvine.”
“Record 396. By Lucario Cuevish. Song of Munival, landmarks. This mentions the turtle-rock on the land now occupied by Albanas, but owned by Lucario's ancestors from time immemorial. There is a large flat rock there marked with cracks like 1 the markings on a turtle's back. This used to be a turtle and was left in this shape as a track of possession. The song means that he is singing to his ancestors. He is singing about the rock. It is his. They left it here to claim the land which was theirs.” (DuBois, quoted by Kroeber, page 115)
...Some Turtle Rock Photos by Anthony P. Tran
The base of the Pala Bell Tower resembles a stone mound – "The San Antonio de Pala Asistencia was founded on June 13, 1816 in what is today the Pala Indian Reservation located in San Diego County (some twenty miles inland) as an asistencia ("sub-mission") to Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, upstream from the mission on the San Luis Rey River. Its official title is now Mission San Antonio de Pala. Pala (a derivation of the native term Pale, meaning water) was essentially a small rancho surrounded by large fields and herds…”
(Adobe mound, stones and finish coat of adobe plaster.)
(I found references to documented Stone cairns, often Donation Piles, in Central and South America, topped with crosses in something called Cairn Trail Shrines in Middle and South America but can't seem to find a link to the free online version.)